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The Nutrition InvestigatorThe health and nutrition blog by Dr. Roc Ordman.

1803 March Advances in Nutrition longer notes

by Roc (click here for full post)

Happy March! Welcome to my many new readers. Reading accurate nutrition news regularly has been proven good for your health.  Congratulate yourself for taking time to improve your healthspan. Remember to find a cause to laugh every day! There were several articles this month about the hazards inflammation has to your health – diabetes, bowel disease, etc. Please read longer notes in next email. 70% of death is caused by infection/inflammation.  To reduce inflammation, read my longer notes hereLow hand-grip strength was associated with Instrumental Activities of Daily Living limitations (I now use a grip device while watching TV); Doctors, there is a 5-minute blood test to diagnose heart attack; Emerging research suggests beneficial effects of CoQ10supplementation in individuals on statin medications.

See https://academic.oup.com/advances/issue/9/2 for abstracts to all articles.

 

Limit intake of free sugars added to fruit juice and sodas. See Perspective: Total, Added, or Free? There is consistent public guidance to limit sugars intakes. Evidence of discriminating relations of total compared with added or free sugars with weight gain or energy intake, type 2 diabetes, and dental caries was identified from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The relations were weakest for total sugars and most consistent for dietary sources corresponding to free sugars (including sugars added to and in fruit juices).

 

Sugar-sweetened beverages are primary cause of cardiovascular disease. See Perspective: Cardiovascular Responses. Cardiovascular diseases are still the primary cause of mortality worldwide, with high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes as major promoters. Over the past 3 decades, almost in parallel with the rise in cardiovascular disease incidence, the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased. In this context, SSBs are potential contributors to weight gain and increase the risk for elevations in blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke.

 

100% fruit juice is okay if there is no added sugar. See Review of 100% Fruit Juice. Aside from increased risk of tooth decay in children and small amounts of weight gain in young children and adults, there is no conclusive evidence that consumption of 100% fruit juice has adverse health effects. Guidelines from groups like the American Academy of Pediatrics and Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommending that 100% fruit juice may be consumed in moderation are consistent with the available evidence and should be used to inform food policies.

 

Fish oils lower blood pressure and heart disease. See ω-3 Fatty Acids, Impaired Fetal Growth, and Cardiovascular Risk: Nutrition as Precision Medicine. There is emerging evidence to support a role for n–3 (ω-3) fatty acids in lowering blood pressure and reducing the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis in people born with impaired fetal growth, a group at increased risk of coronary artery disease partly due to an increased risk of hypertensive disorders. The evidence linking n–3 fatty acid intake with less atherosclerosis and lower blood pressure in people with impaired fetal growth has been derived from studies in young children, adolescents, and adults and has included dietary assessments by questionnaires and circulating biomarkers. Furthermore, results appear to be similar for shorter chain n–3 fatty acids from plant sources and long-chain n–3 fatty acids from marine sources.

 

Curcumin and fish oil reduce inflammation and reduce the rate of cognitive decline and dementia. The rate of cognitive decline in the elderly is highly variable. One potential factor contributing to accelerated cognitive decline is chronic systemic inflammation, because it has been linked to cognitive impairment and increased dementia risk. Certain lifestyle factors, such as excess body weight and sedentary behavior, can exacerbate a proinflammatory state in older adults, resulting in chronic low-grade inflammation. Supplementing the diet with curcumin, an anti-inflammatory polyphenolic compound from the curry spice turmeric, is a potential approach to prevent accelerated cognitive decline by counteracting chronic inflammatory processes. Although the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin are well established, the potential cognitive benefits of curcumin were discovered more recently.

 

See the History and Future of Dietary Guidance in America. Evidence-based dietary guidance in the United States has progressed substantially since its inception >100 y ago. This review describes the historical development and significance of dietary guidance in the United States, including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs), and emphasizes the foundations upon which they were developed, the process in the formation of past and current guidelines, and present and future applications.

 

See Obesity Interventions: Combine diet and exercise to reduce obesity.  Throughout the world, a high prevalence of obesity in older populations has created a new phenotype of frailty: the obese, functionally frail older adult. We conclude that although diet and exercise should be combined whenever possible, it remains important to further investigate the beneficial and likely unique effects that calorie restriction and/or nutrient modification can provide, particularly for obese and functionally frail older populations.

 

See Xanthophylls. Carotenoids are plant pigments commonly found in fruits and vegetables. They are made up of 2 classes, xanthophylls and carotenes. Whereas carotenes are composed of only carbon and hydrogen, xanthophylls include hydroxyl groups, making them slightly more hydrophilic than carotenes. Carotenoids are found throughout the body. Among the carotenoids, the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin selectively accumulate in the eye and brain. In the eye, lutein and zeaxanthin are responsible for the yellow pigment of the macula lutea, along with the nondietary lutein metabolite meso-zeaxanthin (1). Xanthophylls have properties similar to lipids, being insoluble in water, and thus share similar transport mechanisms in the aqueous environment of the body. The presence and levels of xanthophyll in the blood and tissues are the result of dietary intake. Although considered nonessential nutrients, dietary intake is associated with decreased risks of cardiovascular disease, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cognitive decline, and certain cancers (3–5). Because of the conjugated structure of carbon-carbon double bonds, xanthophylls quench reactive oxygen species, especially singlet oxygen, which can cause lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and oxidative damage to important cellular pathways (1).

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