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The Nutrition InvestigatorThe health and nutrition blog by Dr. Roc Ordman.

AJCN Sept 2015

by Roc (click here for full post)
Happy autumn! If you are interested in the details of these results, please read below these headlines.

HEADLINES:
EVERYONE
Skipping breakfast should be enough to reduce the rate of gain in weightConsumption of whole-grain diets lowers LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol, but not HDL cholesterol. Diets with cheese and meat as primary sources of SFAs cause higher HDL cholesterolLean-seafood intake (vs. non-seafood protein intake) reduces cardiovascular lipid risk factors in healthy subjects.
WOMEN
Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks is associated with risk of early menarcheA habitually high intake of soy isoflavones may be associated with a modest (24% in highest quintile) but significant increase in risk of ischemic stroke in women. B vitamins improve bone strength.  MATURE
 In the elderly, the absorption of Vitamin B-12 is reduced. Vitamin B-12 deficiency can result from vegetarianism.
PREGNANT
Lower carb intake during pregnancy improves micronutrient levels.

SUMMARIES
EVERYONE
A small study found that skipping breakfast should be enough to reduce the rate of gain in weight for people who regularly consume breakfast. [Though last month an article reported students brains are 50% more effective if they have eaten breakfast.]

Consumption of whole-grain diets lowers LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol, but not HDL cholesterol or triglycerides, compared with consumption of non–whole-grain control diets. Whole-grain oat appears to be the most effective whole grain for lowering cholesterol.

Diets with cheese and meat as primary sources of SFAs cause higher HDL cholesterol and apo A-I and, therefore, appear to be less atherogenic than is a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. The study was a randomized, crossover, open-label intervention in 14 overweight postmenopausal women.

Lean-seafood intake (vs. non-seafood protein intake) reduces cardiovascular lipid risk factors in healthy subjects.

WOMEN
Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks is associated with risk of early menarche in a US cohort of African American and Caucasian girls.

A habitually high intake of soy isoflavones may be associated with a modest (24% in highest quintile) but significant increase in risk of ischemic stroke in women. However, no association was shown for the urinary excretion of isoflavonoids.

B vitamins improve bone strength.  In women aged ≥50 y, elevated serum total homocysteine  was negatively associated, serum folates were positively associated, and vitamin B-12 were not significantly associated with lumbar and total-body BMD. In this nationally representative population of older US women with high exposure to B vitamins through food fortification and dietary supplements, only elevated tHcy and MMA were independently associated with risk of lumbar spine osteoporosis.

MATURE
 In the elderly, the absorption of Vitamin B-12 is reduced; hence, the daily requirement is higher than in younger individuals. Vitamin B-12 deficiency can result from vegetarianism.

PREGNANT
Lower carb intake during pregnancy improves micronutrient levels. Normal pregnancy can be associated with a decline in energy and micronutrient intake from diet. Low dietary GI and GL were the best predictors of a favorable micronutrient profile.

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