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The Nutrition InvestigatorThe health and nutrition blog by Dr. Roc Ordman.

AJCN June 2014

by Roc (click here for full post)

Headlines below, summaries follow. Coming soon – The remarkable promise of daily blueberries and green tea to prevent osteoporosis and Alzheimer’s.

Headlines: The Good: 1. Vitamin C intake correlates with better hearing 2. Dairy fat reduces diabetes risk 3. Weight bearing exercise more important than nutrition for bone mass 4. Taking resveratrol is very helpful to people with diabetes

The Bad: 5. Skipping breakfast prevents weight loss Red meat – Reduce red meat consumption for health of you and Earth – 6. Healthy diet for a healthy planet; less meat, more plants, less pop, only 1 or 2 drinks of alcohol -7. Hazards of red meat consumption – In addition to diabetes and coronary artery disease, evidence from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials has linked red meat with kidney injury, stroke, heart failure, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, and premature death. 8. Sugar-sweetened beverages dramatically raise chronic disease risk factors 9. Processed foods contribute most energy, sugar and salt to American diets

For mothers: 10. Breastfeeding and obesity at age 6 – Associations of infant breastfeeding and age at the introduction of solid foods with general and abdominal fat outcomes are explained by sociodemographic (SES) and lifestyle-related factors. 11. High protein diet from meat increases gestational diabetes risk

News: 12. Food metabolome has more than 25,000 compounds

Summaries:

1. Vitamin C intake correlates with better hearing – Dietary intake of vitamin C was associated with better hearing in the older population. Previous animal studies have shown that vitamins may prevent age-related hearing loss. The univariate analysis indicated that dietary intakes of retinol, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C were positively correlated with better hearing at most frequencies. In contrast, serum concentrations of vitamin D were associated with worse hearing at mid and high.

2. Dairy fat reduces diabetes risk – Plasma phospholipid concentrations of trans-palmitoleic acid (trans-16:1n−7), a biomarker of dairy fat intake, are inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes in 2 US cohorts.

3. Weight bearing exercise more important than nutrition for bone mass – Current lean mass and weight-bearing physical activity were more important determinants of bone mass than was early-life undernutrition in this population.

4. Taking resveratrol is very helpful to people with diabetes – Resveratrol significantly improves glucose control and insulin sensitivity in persons with diabetes but does not affect glycemic measures in nondiabetic persons.

5. Skipping breakfast prevents weight loss – Similar effects of recurrent or chronic hyperghrelinemia on an anticipatory food reward may contribute to the negative impact of skipping breakfast on dietary habits and body weight and the long-term failure of energy restriction for weight loss.Reduce red meat consumption for health of you and Earth – 6.Healthy diet for a healthy planet; less meat, more plants, less pop, only 1 or 2 drinks of alcohol – A strength of this study was that most of the dimensions for “sustainable diets” were considered, ie, not only nutritional quality and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) but also affordability and cultural acceptability. A reduction in diet-related GHGE by 20% while maintaining high nutritional quality seems realistic. This goal could be achieved at no extra cost by reducing energy intake and energy density and increasing the share of plant-based products. By common consensus, the most sustainable diets are those that are most environmentally friendly, with minimal impact on land, water, and energy resources. For lack of other data, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) associated with farming and food production have become a key measure of foods’ environmental cost. The FAO has defined sustainable diets as nutritionally adequate, economically affordable, culturally acceptable, accessible, healthy, and safe. In past studies, lower energy density and higher nutrient density were each associated with higher per calorie diet costs. Lower-cost diets tended to be energy-rich and nutrient-poor. Second, some eminently affordable healthy foods were not culturally acceptable and tended to be rejected, even by the lower-income groups. Third, the most nutrient-dense foods and the highest-quality diets have been associated with higher per calorie GHGEs and with higher carbon costs. Persons who showed positive deviance consumed 20% less meat by weight; there was also a 10% decrease in mixed dishes with meat. There was a 40% decrease in alcohol intake and a marked decrease in soft drink consumption. The consumption of desserts decreased by 10%. Those patterns held for both men and women. By contrast, the consumption of fresh fruit and raw and cooked vegetables was 20% higher among men only and was not significantly higher among women. Men who showed positive deviance consumed 10% more starchy foods by weight, mostly grains. 7. Hazards of red meat consumption – The authors noted that red meat has been associated with inflammation, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. Yet, the association between red meat and chronic disease goes far beyond this. In addition to diabetes and coronary artery disease, evidence from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials has linked red meat with a host of other conditions, including, for instance, kidney injury, stroke, and heart failure. Red meat has also been associated with pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, and premature death. The American Heart Association and the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research both recommend limiting intake.

8. Sugar-sweetened beverages dramatically raise chronic disease risk factors – Obesity and other noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors are increasing in low- and middle-income countries. This cohort showed dramatic increases in added sugars and sucrose-sweetened beverage consumption in both urban and rural areas. Increased consumption was associated with increased NCD risk factors. Urgent action is needed to address these trends.

9. Processed foods contribute most energy, sugar and salt to American diets – Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium.

10. Breastfeeding and obesity at age 6 – Associations of infant breastfeeding and age at the introduction of solid foods with general and abdominal fat outcomes are explained by sociodemographic (SES) and lifestyle-related factors. The focus of this article is the relation between infant feeding (the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding and the age at introduction of solid foods) and adiposity at 6 y of age, which are risk factors for later type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease in adulthood.  In high-income countries, mothers who breastfeed, and particularly those who breastfeed exclusively and for a prolonged duration, are more likely to be well educated and from high-income families. In addition to SES, other important potential confounding factors include maternal smoking and high maternal BMI, both of which have been robustly associated with formula feeding and with shorter durations of breastfeeding (less than 5 months), on the one hand, and later adiposity, on the other.

11. High protein diet from meat increases gestational diabetes risk – A prepregnancy low-carbohydrate dietary pattern with high protein and fat from animal-food sources is positively associated with GDM risk, whereas a prepregnancy low-carbohydrate dietary pattern with high protein and fat from vegetable food sources is not associated with the risk. Women of reproductive age who follow a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern may consider consuming vegetable rather than animal sources of protein and fat to minimize their risk of GDM.

12. Food metabolome has more than 25,000 compounds – The food metabolome is defined as the part of the human metabolome directly derived from the digestion and biotransformation of foods and their constituents. With >25,000 compounds known in various foods, the food metabolome is extremely complex, with a composition varying widely according to the diet.  These limits were discussed during the First International Workshop on the Food Metabolome held in Glasgow.

– Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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